Coulomb spin liquids are topological magnetic states obeying an emergent Gauss' law. Little distinction has been made between different kinds of Coulomb liquids. Here we show how a series of distinct Coulomb liquids can be generated straightforwardly by varying the constraints on a classical spin system. This leads to pair creation, and coalescence, of topological defects of an underlying vector field. The latter makes higher-rank spin liquids, of recent interest in the context of fracton theories, with attendant multi-fold pinch points in the structure factor, appear naturally. New Coulomb liquids with an abundance of pinch points also arise. We thus establish a new and general route to uncovering exotic Coulomb liquids, via the manipulation of topological defects in momentum space.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 107202 (2021)