We present a systematic recipe for generating and classifying duality transformations in one-dimensional quantum lattice systems. Our construction emphasizes the role of global symmetries, including those described by (non)-abelian groups but also more general categorical symmetries. These symmetries can be realized as matrix product operators which allow the extraction of a fusion category that characterizes the algebra of all symmetric operators commuting with the symmetry. Known as the bond algebra, its explicit realizations are classified by module categories over the fusion category. A duality is then defined by a pair of distinct module categories giving rise to dual realizations of the bond algebra, as well as dual Hamiltonians. Symmetries of dual models are in general distinct but satisfy a categorical Morita equivalence. A key novelty of our categorical approach is the explicit construction of matrix product operators that intertwine dual bond algebra realizations at the level of the Hilbert space, in addition to mapping local order operators to non-local string-order operators. We illustrate this approach for known dualities such as Kramers-Wannier, Jordan-Wigner, Kennedy-Tasaki and the IRF-vertex correspondence, along with new ones in a model with the exotic Haagerup categorical symmetry. Finally, we comment on generalizations to higher dimensions.